Statistical Communiqué on the Development of Health Care in China in 2017


Release time:

2018-07-04

In 2017, the national health and family planning system implemented the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, actively promoted the construction of a healthy China, deepened the medical reform and achieved significant phased results, and gradually improved the capacity of public health, disease prevention and control, and medical and health services. fertility service management, traditional Chinese medicine and other work have been strengthened, the level of comprehensive supervision has been continuously improved, and the health level of urban and rural residents has been continuously improved. From 2016 to 2017, the average life expectancy of residents increased from 76.5 years to 76.7 years, the maternal mortality rate decreased from 19.9/100000 to 19.6/100000, and the infant mortality rate decreased from 7.5 ‰ to 6.8 ‰.

1. Health Resources

Total number of (I) medical and health institutions. At the end of 2017, the total number of medical and health institutions nationwide reached 986649, an increase of 3255 over the previous year. Among them, there are 31056 hospitals, 933024 primary medical and health institutions and 19896 professional public health institutions. Compared with the previous year, the number of hospitals increased by 1916, the number of primary medical and health institutions increased by 6506, and the number of professional public health institutions decreased by 4970 (due to the adjustment of institutional functions and resource integration, the number of family planning technical service institutions decreased by 4965) (see Table 1).

Among the hospitals, there are 12297 public hospitals and 18759 private hospitals. Hospitals are divided into 2340 tertiary hospitals (including 1360 tertiary and first-class hospitals), 8422 secondary hospitals, 10050 primary hospitals and 10244 ungraded hospitals. Hospitals are divided into 18737 hospitals with 100 beds, 4547 hospitals with 100-199 beds, 4223 hospitals with 200-499 beds, 1798 hospitals with 500-799 beds and 1751 hospitals with 800 beds and above.

Among the primary medical and health institutions, there are 34652 community health service centers (stations), 36551 township health centers, 211572 clinics and infirmary, and 632057 village clinics. There are 120444 government-run primary health care institutions.

Among the professional public health institutions, there are 3457 centers for disease control and prevention, including 31 at the provincial level, 412 at the city (prefecture) level, and 2773 at the county (district, county-level city) level. There are 2992 health and family planning supervision agencies, including 31 at the provincial level, 395 at the city (prefecture) level, and 2523 at the county (district, county-level city) level.

(II) number of beds. At the end of 2017, there were 7.94 million beds in medical and health institutions nationwide, including 6.12 million hospitals (77.1 per cent) and 1.529 million primary health institutions (19.3 per cent). Hospitals, public hospital beds accounted for 75.7, private hospital beds accounted for 24.3. Compared with the previous year, the number of beds increased by 530000, including 431000 beds in hospitals and 87000 beds in primary medical and health institutions. The number of medical and health institutions per thousand population increased from 5.37 in 2016 to 5.72 in 2017.

Total number of (III) health personnel. At the end of 2017, the total number of health personnel nationwide reached 11.749 million, an increase of 576000 (5.2 per cent) over the previous year.

At the end of 2017, there were 8.988 million health technicians, 969000 rural doctors and health workers, 451000 other technicians, 509000 management personnel and 832000 workers. Among the health technical personnel, there are 3.39 million practicing (assistant) doctors and 3.804 million registered nurses. Compared with the previous year, the number of health technicians increased by 534000 (an increase of 5.9 per cent). (See Table 2) Distribution of health personnel institutions at the end of 2017: 6.977 million in hospitals (59.4 per cent), 3.826 million in primary health care institutions (32.6 per cent) and 872000 in professional public health institutions (7.3 per cent). Compared with the previous year, the total number of personnel in professional public health institutions increased by 1556. (See Table 3)

At the end of 2017, the educational background structure of health technicians was 34.0 per cent with bachelor's degree or above, 39.1 per cent with junior college, 25.1 per cent with Secondary specialized school, and 1.8 per cent with Senior high school or below. Structure of technical positions (employment): 7.8 per cent at senior (director and deputy director level), 20.5 per cent at intermediate (attending and supervisor), 61.4 per cent at junior (division and bachelor level) and 10.3 per cent to be employed.

In 2017, there were 2.44 practicing (assistant) physicians per 1,000 population, 2.74 registered nurses per 1,000 population, 1.82 general practitioners per 10,000 population, and 6.28 professional public health institutions per 10,000 population.

Total (IV) health costs. According to preliminary calculations, the total national health expenditure is expected to reach 5159.88 billion yuan in 2017, of which: government health expenditure 1551.73 billion yuan (30.1 per cent), social health expenditure 2120.68 billion yuan (41.1 per cent) and personal health expenditure 1487.48 billion yuan (28.8 per cent). The total cost of health per capita is 3712.2 yuan, and the total cost of health as a percentage of GDP is 6.2. (See Table 4)

  2. medical services

(I) outpatient and inpatient volumes. In 2017, the total number of medical and health institutions nationwide reached 8.18 billion, an increase of 0.25 billion (an increase of 3.2 percent) over the previous year. In 2017, residents visited medical and health institutions an average of 5.9 times.

Of the total number of visits in 2017, 3.44 billion were made in hospitals (42.1 per cent), 4.43 billion in primary health care institutions (54.2 per cent) and 0.31 billion in other health care institutions (3.8 per cent). Compared with the previous year, the number of visits in hospitals increased by 0.17 billion, and the number of visits in primary medical and health institutions increased by 0.06 billion.

In 2017, there were 2.95 billion visits in public hospitals (85.8 per cent of the total number of hospitals) and 0.49 billion visits in private hospitals (14.2 per cent of the total number of hospitals). (see Table 5) in 2017, the number of outpatient visits in township health centers and community health service centers (stations) reached 1.88 billion, an increase of 0.08 billion over the previous year. The number of outpatients in township health centers and community health service centers (stations) accounted for 23.0 of the total number of outpatients, an increase of 0.3 percentage points over the previous year.

In 2017, 244.36 million people were admitted to medical and health institutions nationwide, an increase of 17.08 million people (an increase of 7.5 percent) over the previous year, and the annual hospitalization rate was 17.6 percent.

Of the number of admissions in 2017, 189.15 million were from hospitals (77.4 per cent), 44.5 million from primary health care institutions (18.2 per cent) and 10.71 million from other health care institutions (4.4 per cent). Compared with the previous year, hospital admissions increased by 13.87 million, primary medical and health institutions increased by 2.85 million, and other medical institutions increased by 360000.

In 2017, there were 155.95 million admissions to public hospitals (82.4 per cent of the total number of hospitals) and 33.21 million admissions to private hospitals (17.6 per cent of the total number of hospitals). (see Table 5) (II) hospital physician workload. In 2017, hospital doctors will be responsible for 7.1 visits and 2.6 bed days per day, of which: public hospital doctors will be responsible for 7.6 visits and 2.6 bed days per day. The average daily workload of hospital doctors decreased slightly compared with the previous year. (See Table 6)

(III) bed use. In 2017, the utilization rate of hospital beds nationwide was 85.0 per cent, of which: 91.3 per cent were public hospitals. Compared with the previous year, the utilization rate of hospital beds decreased by 0.3 percentage points (of which public hospitals increased by 0.3 percentage points). In 2017, the average length of stay for hospital discharge was 9.3 days (including: 9.4 days in public hospitals). Compared with the previous year, the average length of stay for hospital discharge was shortened by 0.1 days. (See Table 7)

(IV) improve medical services. By the end of 2017, 42.0 per cent of public hospitals at level II and above had made appointments, 81.4 per cent had made clinical pathway management, 43.3 per cent had made telemedicine services, 86.3 per cent had participated in mutual recognition of examination results at the same level, and 76.1 per cent had made quality nursing services. (V) blood guarantee. In 2017, the number of unpaid blood donors reached 14.59 million, and the amount of blood collected reached 24.78 million units, an increase of 4.2 per cent and 5.0 per cent respectively over 2016, with a blood donation rate of nearly 11 per thousand people.

  3. primary health services

(I) rural health. At the end of 2017, 2851 counties (county-level cities) across the country had 14482 county-level hospitals, 1917 county-level maternal and child health institutions, 2109 county-level disease prevention and control centers, and 1839 county-level health supervision offices. There are 2.886 million health personnel in four types of county-level health institutions.

At the end of 2017, there were 37000 township health centers in 31600 townships across the country, with 1.292 million beds and 1.36 million health personnel (including 1.151 million health technicians). Compared with the previous year, the number of township health centers decreased by 244 (after the merger of townships), the number of beds increased by 68000, and the number of personnel increased by 39000. In 2017, there were 1.35 beds in township health centers per 1,000 rural population, and 1.42 people in township health centers per 1,000 rural population. (See Table 8)

By the end of 2017, there were 632000 village clinics in 554000 administrative villages across the country. There are 1.455 million village clinics, including 351000 practicing (assistant) doctors, 135000 registered nurses and 901000 village doctors. The average village health room staff 2.30 people. Compared with the previous year, the number of village clinics decreased by 7000 and the total number of personnel increased by 19000. (See Table 9)

In 2017, the number of medical visits in county-level (including county-level cities) hospitals across the country reached 1.14 billion, an increase of 0.06 billion over the previous year; the number of admissions was 83.642 million, an increase of 5.148 million over the previous year; the bed utilization rate was 82.0, a decrease of 0.1 over the previous year. percentage point.

In 2017, the number of visits in township health centers was 1.11 billion, an increase of 0.03 billion over the previous year; the number of admissions was 40.47 million, an increase of 2.47 million over the previous year. In 2017, doctors will be responsible for 9.6 visits and 1.6 bed days in hospital. The utilization rate of hospital beds was 61.3 per cent, and the average length of stay was 6.3 days. Compared with the previous year, the workload of doctors in township hospitals decreased slightly, the utilization rate of hospital beds increased by 0.7 percentage points, and the average length of stay decreased by 0.1 days compared with the previous year.

In 2017, the number of visits in village clinics reached 1.79 billion, 0.06 billion fewer than the previous year, with an average of 2831 visits per village clinic.

(II) community health. By the end of 2017, 34652 community health service centers (stations) had been established nationwide, including 9147 community health service centers and 25505 community health service stations. Compared with the previous year, the number of community health service centers increased by 229 and the number of community health service stations increased by 96. There are 437000 staff in the community health service center, with an average of 48 in each center; there are 117000 staff in the community health service station, with an average of 5 staff per station. The number of staff in community health service centers (stations) increased by 33000 over the previous year, an increase of 6.3.

In 2017, the number of visits to community health service centers nationwide was 0.61 billion, and the number of admissions was 3.442 million. The amount of medical services increased over the previous year. On average, each center has an annual diagnosis and treatment volume of 66000, with an annual admission volume of 376. Doctors are responsible for 16.2 diagnosis and treatment and 0.7 days of hospitalization per day. In 2017, the number of visits to community health service stations nationwide was 0.16 billion, with an average of 6266 visits per station per year, and doctors were responsible for 14.1 visits per day. (See Table 10)

(III) the national basic public health service project. In 2017, the national basic public health service project per capita basic public health service subsidy standard was raised from 45 yuan to 50 yuan, health literacy promotion and free contraceptives were included in the national basic public health service project, and the project content was expanded from 12 categories to 14 categories.

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine Service

(I) TCM institutions, beds and personnel. At the end of 2017, the total number of Chinese medicine medical and health institutions nationwide reached 54243, an increase of 4716 over the previous year. Among them, there are 4566 TCM hospitals, 49632 TCM outpatient departments and clinics, and 45 TCM research institutions. Compared with the previous year, the number of Chinese medicine hospitals increased by 328, and the number of Chinese medicine outpatient departments and clinics increased by 4391. (See Table 11)

At the end of 2017, there were 1.136 million beds in Chinese medicine medical and health institutions nationwide, of which 951000 were Chinese medicine hospitals (83.8 per cent). Compared with the previous year, the number of beds in traditional Chinese medicine increased by 102000, of which the number of beds in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals increased by 74000.

At the end of 2017, community health service centers providing traditional Chinese medicine services accounted for 98.2 percent of similar institutions, community health service stations accounted for 85.5 percent, township health centers accounted for 96.0 percent, and village clinics accounted for 66.4 percent. (See Table 12)

At the end of 2017, the total number of TCM health personnel nationwide reached 664000, an increase of 51000 over the previous year (an increase of 8.3 per cent). Among them, there are 527000 practicing (assistant) doctors and 120000 Chinese pharmacists (clerks) in the category of traditional Chinese medicine. Both categories of personnel increased over the previous year. (See Table 13)

(II) medical services of traditional Chinese medicine. In 2017, the total number of medical and health institutions of traditional Chinese medicine nationwide reached 1.02 billion, an increase of 0.06 billion (5.9 percent) over the previous year. Among them: 0.6 billion (59.3 per cent) in TCM hospitals, 0.16 billion (15.7 per cent) in TCM outpatient departments and clinics, and 0.26 billion (25.0 per cent) in TCM clinical departments in other medical institutions.

In 2017, 32.91 million people were discharged from Chinese medical and health institutions nationwide, an increase of 3.42 million people (an increase of 11.6 percent) over the previous year. Among them: 28.161 million (85.6 per cent) in TCM hospitals, 12000 in TCM outpatient departments and 4.737 million (14.4 per cent) in TCM clinical departments in other health care institutions. (See Table 14)

 5. patient medical expenses

(I) hospital patient medical expenses. In 2017, the average outpatient cost of the hospital was 257.0 yuan, up 4.7 per cent from the previous year's price and 3.0 per cent from comparable prices, and the per capita hospitalization cost was 8890.7 yuan, up 3.3 per cent from the previous year's price and 1.7 per cent from comparable prices. The average daily hospitalization cost is 958.8 yuan. (See Table 15) In 2017, the average hospital outpatient drug cost (109.7 yuan) accounted for 42.7 percent, down 2.8 percentage points from the previous year (45.5 percent); the average hospital inpatient drug cost (2764.9 yuan) accounted for 31.1 percent, down 3.5 percentage points from the previous year (34.6 percent).

In 2017, among public hospitals at all levels, the average outpatient expenses of tertiary hospitals increased by 3.8 per cent (prices for the year, the same below), and the per capita hospitalization expenses increased by 1.9 per cent, a decrease from the previous year and lower than the increase in patient expenses in public hospitals. (See Table 15)

(II) the medical expenses of patients in primary medical and health institutions. In 2017, the average outpatient cost of community health service centers was 117.0 yuan, an increase of 9.1 per cent over the previous year and 7.4 per cent at comparable prices; the per capita hospitalization cost was 3059.1 yuan, an increase of 6.5 per cent over the previous year and 4.8 per cent at comparable prices. (See Table 16)

In 2017, the average outpatient drug cost of community health service centers (80.4 yuan) accounted for 68.7 percent, down 0.9 percentage points from the previous year (69.6 percent); the average inpatient drug cost (1208.4 yuan) accounted for 39.5 percent, down 2.3 percentage points from the previous year (41.8 percent).

In 2017, the average outpatient cost of township health centers was 66.5 yuan, up 5.6 per cent from the previous year's price and 3.9 per cent from comparable prices, and the per capita hospitalization cost was 1717.1 yuan, up 6.2 per cent from the previous year's price and 4.5 per cent from comparable prices. The average daily hospitalization cost is 272.0 yuan.

In 2017, the average outpatient drug cost (36.2 yuan) of township health centers accounted for 54.4 percent, down 0.4 percentage points from the previous year (54.8 percent); the average inpatient drug cost (725.2 yuan) accounted for 42.2 percent, down 1.8 percentage points from the previous year (44.0 percent).

 6. Disease Control and Public Health

(I) infectious diseases report morbidity and mortality. In 2017, a total of 3.064 million cases of Class A and B infectious diseases were reported nationwide, with 19642 deaths. The top five reported diseases were viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhea, bacterial and amoebic dysentery, accounting for 92.8 per cent of the total reported cases of class A and B infectious diseases; the top five reported deaths were AIDS, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, rabies and human infection with H7N9 avian influenza, accounting for 98.8 per cent of the total reported deaths from class A and B infectious diseases. (See Table 17)

In 2017, the national incidence rate of Class A and B infectious diseases was 222.1/100000, and the mortality rate was 1.4/100000.

In 2017, 3.967 million cases of Class C infectious diseases were reported nationwide, with 154 deaths. The top five reported cases were hand, foot and mouth disease, other infectious diarrhea, influenza, mumps and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, accounting for 99.8 per cent of the total reported cases of Class C infectious diseases. The diseases with a large number of reported deaths were hand, foot and mouth disease, influenza and other infectious diarrhea, accounting for 100 per cent of the total reported deaths from category C infectious diseases. (See Table 18)

In 2017, the national reported incidence rate of category C infectious diseases was 287.5/100000, and the mortality rate was 0.01/100000.

(II) schistosomiasis control. At the end of 2017, there were 450 schistosomiasis endemic counties (cities, districts) across the country; the counties (cities, districts) that achieved elimination, transmission interruption, and transmission control were 215, 153, and 82 respectively; at the end of the year, there were 38000 patients., 17000 fewer than the previous year.

(III) endemic disease control. By the end of 2017, there were 328 Keshan disease-stricken districts and counties nationwide, with 236 and 73 eliminated and controlled counties respectively, and 8300 chronic patients. There are 375 districts and counties with Kashin-Deck disease, 296 and 53 eliminated and controlled counties respectively, with 486700 patients. Iodine deficiency has harmed 2787 counties and eliminated 2612 counties. There are 1115 endemic fluorosis (drinking water type) disease districts and counties, 75287 wards and villages, 634 control counties, 14.107 million dental fluorosis patients and 1.114 million skeletal fluorosis patients. There are 172 endemic fluorosis (coal-fired pollution type) disease districts and counties, 87 and 65 counties have been eliminated and controlled respectively, 13.824 million dental fluorosis patients and 1.737 million skeletal fluorosis patients.

(IV) occupational disease reporting. In 2017, 26756 new cases of various occupational diseases were reported nationwide. There were 22790 cases of occupational pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases, including 22701 cases of occupational pneumoconiosis, 1608 cases of occupational otorhinolaryngology and oral diseases, 1021 cases of occupational chemical poisoning, 295 cases of acute and 726 cases of chronic occupational poisoning, 673 cases of occupational infectious diseases, 399 cases of occupational diseases caused by physical factors, 85 cases of occupational tumors, 83 cases of occupational skin diseases, 70 cases of occupational eye diseases and 15 cases of occupational radiation diseases; 12 cases of other occupational diseases.

 7. maternal and child health

(I) maternal and child health care. In 2017, the rate of prenatal visits was 96.5 per cent and the rate of postpartum visits was 94.0 per cent. Compared with the previous year, the rate of antenatal examination and postnatal visits decreased. In 2017, the hospital delivery rate was 99.9 per cent (99.96 per cent in cities and 99.75 per cent in counties), an increase of 0.1 percentage points over the previous year (0.01 per cent in cities and 0.13 per cent in counties).

In 2017, the systematic management rate of children under 3 years old reached 91.1 per cent, basically the same as that of the previous year, while that of pregnant women reached 89.6 per cent, 2.0 percentage points lower than that of the previous year. (See Table 19)

 

(II) under-five mortality rate. According to maternal and child health monitoring, in 2017, the mortality rate of children under 5 years old was 9.1 ‰, of which: 4.8 ‰ in urban areas and 10.9 ‰ in rural areas; the infant mortality rate was 6.8 ‰, of which: 4.1 ‰ in urban areas and 7.9 ‰ in rural areas ‰. Compared with the previous year, the mortality rate of children under 5 years old and the infant mortality rate have decreased to varying degrees. (See Table 20)

(III) maternal mortality. According to maternal and child health monitoring, in 2017, the maternal mortality rate was 19.6/100000, of which: urban 16.6/100000, rural 21.1/100000. Compared with the previous year, the maternal mortality rate has decreased (see table 20). The composition of the main causes of maternal death in urban areas: obstetric hemorrhage 30.3 per cent, amniotic fluid embolism 11.2 per cent, hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy 5.6 per cent, and combined heart disease 10.1 per cent; the composition of the main causes of maternal death in rural areas: obstetric hemorrhage 27.9 per cent, amniotic fluid embolism 15.0 per cent, hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy 12.4 per cent, and combined heart disease 8.0 per cent.

(IV) national free pre-pregnancy eugenics program. All counties (cities, districts) across the country generally carry out free pre-pregnancy eugenic health examinations, and provide free pre-pregnancy eugenic services such as health education, health examinations, risk assessment and consultation and guidance for rural couples planning to become pregnant. In 2017, a total of 11.73 million couples planning to become pregnant were provided with free screening, with an average coverage rate of 91.7 per cent among the target population. All the screened-out risk groups received targeted counseling, guidance, treatment and referral services, and implemented pre-pregnancy preventive measures, effectively reducing the risk of birth defects.

  8. Food Safety and Hygiene Supervision

(I) expand the scope of food safety risk monitoring. According to the reports of various provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) and Xinjiang Construction Corps (the same below), as of the end of 2017, 2808 food safety risk monitoring points have been set up nationwide, and 140000 samples of 26 categories have been monitored, and 3.4 million monitoring data have been obtained; in 9780 Medical and health institutions set up monitoring points to carry out pilot food-borne disease monitoring.

(II) health supervision in public places. In 2017, there were 1.156 million public health supervision units nationwide, with 6.313 million employees. 1.921 million households were supervised and inspected in public places, and 60227 cases were investigated and dealt with in accordance with the law.

(III) drinking water hygiene supervision. In 2017, there were 71000 units under supervision of drinking water sanitation (water supply) nationwide, with 417000 people directly engaged in water supply and management. Supervise and inspect the sanitation of drinking water (water supply) for 129000 households. There are 5147 supervised units involving drinking water hygiene and safety products nationwide, with 112000 employees. Supervise and inspect 5934 households of products related to drinking water hygiene and safety. 4991 cases involving drinking water and drinking water safety products were investigated and dealt with in accordance with the law.

(IV) disinfection products and tableware and drinking utensils centralized disinfection and health supervision. In 2017, 5021 units were supervised for disinfection products nationwide, with 78195 employees. Disinfection products were supervised and inspected 40286 times and 5031 samples were sampled, with a qualified rate of 96.9. 1922 cases were investigated and dealt with in accordance with the law. In 2017, there were 4611 centralized disinfection service units for tableware and drinking utensils nationwide, with 46000 employees. Supervised and inspected 10039 households and investigated and dealt with 919 cases in accordance with the law.

(V) school health supervision. In 2017, 198000 schools were supervised nationwide, 313000 households were supervised and inspected, and 4338 cases were investigated and dealt.

(VI) occupational disease prevention and control institutions and health supervision of radiation diagnosis and treatment. In 2017, there were 2754 occupational health inspection institutions, 478 occupational disease diagnosis institutions, and 345 radiation health technical service institutions across the country. 125 cases were investigated and dealt with in accordance with the law, including 124 cases of health administrative penalties in accordance with the law. There are 54880 units supervising radiation diagnosis and treatment nationwide, and 4101 cases have been investigated and dealt with in accordance with the law.

(VII) health supervision over medical and health care, blood safety and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In 2017, 33244 health administrative penalties were imposed on medical institutions or medical personnel in accordance with the law. 16160 pieces of administrative punishment for practicing medicine without a license. 94 administrative penalties were imposed on blood safety in accordance with the law. 33510 cases of prevention and treatment of infectious diseases were investigated and dealt with in accordance with the law, of which 33498 cases of health administrative penalties were imposed in accordance with the law.

(VIII) supervision of family planning. In 2017, 13690 supervised units carried out family planning and maternal and child health care technical services nationwide, of which 16757 households (units) were supervised and inspected, and 828 cases were investigated and dealt with in accordance with the law.

  9. family planning

(I) implement a comprehensive two-child policy. Since the implementation of the comprehensive two-child policy, the policy effect has been gradually released. In 2017, the number of live births in hospital delivery nationwide was 17.58 million, with 51% of the second child.

(II) comprehensively promote the equalization of basic public health and family planning services for the floating population. A total of 308 demonstration enterprises and schools for health promotion of the floating population have been cultivated and built, and the fairness and accessibility of basic public health and family planning services have been continuously improved. The coverage rate of basic public health and family planning services for the floating population across the country has been maintained at more than 87%.

(III) family planning family incentives and support policies. In 2017, a total of 15.85 billion million yuan was invested in the "three systems" of family planning rewards and assistance, an increase of 1.75 billion yuan over the previous year; 12.047 million people benefited from the rural family planning family reward and assistance system, and the family planning family special assistance system for only-child disabled families benefited 1.122 million people, and 23000 households benefited from the "fewer births and faster prosperity" project in the western region. (See Table 21)

 Comments:

(1) Medical and health institutions include hospitals, primary medical and health institutions, professional public health institutions, and other institutions.

(2) Public hospitals refer to state-owned and collectively-run hospitals (including government-run hospitals).

(3) Private hospitals refer to hospitals other than public hospitals, including joint ventures, joint-stock cooperation, private enterprises, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao investment and foreign investment.

(4) Primary medical and health institutions include community health service centers (stations), street health centers, township health centers, village clinics, outpatient departments, and clinics (infirmary).

(5) Professional public health institutions include disease prevention and control centers, Junior College disease prevention and control institutions, maternal and child health care institutions, health education institutions, emergency centers (stations), blood collection and supply institutions, health and family planning supervision institutions, and family planning technical service institutions.

(6) Government offices refer to medical and health institutions organized by administrative departments such as health, education, civil affairs, public security, justice, and Corps.

(7) Traditional Chinese medicine medical and health institutions include hospitals, outpatient departments, clinics and scientific research institutions of traditional Chinese medicine, integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine, and ethnic medicine.

(8) Health personnel include health technicians, village doctors and health workers, other technical personnel, management personnel, and skilled workers. Statistics according to the number of employees on the job, including those who are on the job, under contract, re-employed and temporary employed for more than half a year.

(9) Health technical personnel include practicing (assistant) physicians, registered nurses, pharmacists (clerics), technicians (clerics), health and family planning supervisors (including the number of civil servants who have obtained health supervisor certificates), and other health technical personnel.

(10) A practicing (assistant) doctor refers to a person who has obtained a doctor's practice certificate and is actually engaged in clinical work, excluding a person who has obtained a doctor's practice certificate but is actually engaged in management work.

(11) Registered nurses refer to the personnel who have obtained the registered nurse certificate and are actually engaged in nursing work, excluding the personnel who have obtained the nurse practice certificate but are actually engaged in management work.

(12) The number of health technicians per thousand population, the number of practicing (assistant) doctors, the number of registered nurses, the number of general practitioners, the number of personnel in professional public health institutions, and the number of beds in medical and health institutions are calculated according to the resident population.