China eats more than 100,000 tons of antibiotics a year, accounting for half of the world's consumption.
According to a study released by the Ying Guangguo research group of the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the total use of antibiotics in China in 2013 was about 162000 tons, of which 48% were human antibiotics and the rest were veterinary antibiotics. Moreover, the density of antibiotic emissions in eastern China is more than 6 times that of the western basin. The chronic disease of antibiotic abuse has once again aroused concern.
China accounts for half of global antibiotic use
"For a long time, the total use of antibiotics in my country has been a'mystery' because there is no authoritative data from the national level." Xiao Yonghong, a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Diagnosis and Treatment in the First Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, told a reporter from Life Times. In his personal opinion, Ying Guangguo and his research group selected 36 common antibiotics to conduct in-depth emission list and multi-medium simulation research, thus obtaining the data that "the total usage of antibiotics in China is about 162000 tons", which may be different from the real situation to some extent, because some antibiotics such as penicillin will quickly dissolve in the environment, and it may not be very accurate to draw a conclusion only through the detection of environmental concentration.
In 2008, Xiao Yonghong organized a study on antibiotics. After comprehensive analysis of a number of data, it was found that the total use of antibiotics in my country was 150000 tons to 200000 tons. Among them, the ratio of human antibiotics and veterinary antibiotics is equivalent to that of the United States, which is about 3:7. According to other media reports, China's use accounts for about 50% of the world's total use. Xiao Yonghong said that as the health system has strengthened the management of the use of antibiotics in recent years, theoretically speaking, the use of antibiotics for human use must show a downward trend. Influenced by the more dense population and the more developed pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and aquaculture, the density of antibiotic emissions in the eastern basin of China is much higher than that in the western basin.
Xiao Yonghong said that drug resistance is one of the most urgent public health problems in the world, and the situation in China is particularly serious. British research shows that if there is no way to deal with drug-resistant bacteria, by 2050, 10 million more people will die every year and cause a loss of 100 trillion US dollars. Data show that more than 80000 people die each year in China due to drug resistance. According to the British Antimicrobial Resistance Assessment Committee, if the current situation is not improved, 1 million people will die in China by 2050.
Antibiotic abuse leads to drug-resistant bacteria "raging"
In fact, before Ying Guangguo's research group, there have been many studies showing the severity of antibiotic abuse. In April this year, the School of Public Health of Fudan University in Shanghai conducted urine tests on more than 1000 children aged 8 to 11 in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai and other places. The results showed that nearly 60% of the children's urine contained antibiotics. In May 2014, a research report published by East China University of Science and Technology and other institutions stated that my country's surface water contains 68 kinds of antibiotics.
Xiao Yonghong said that antibiotics in the environment will have two major consequences: first, it will directly damage human health. Residual antibacterial drugs in the environment may enter the human body through the food chain, and antibacterial drugs are chemical drugs. Human beings are exposed to antibacterial drugs for a long time, which is harmful to their health. For example, children who are exposed to antibacterial drugs for a long time will suffer from obesity and asthma. The probability will increase. Second, increase the problem of drug resistance. Antibacterial drugs kill sensitive bacteria, but drug-resistant bacteria may be "safe and sound" and continue to spread between bacteria, animals and humans. A study in the United States found that drug-resistant bacteria can even spread through the air. Data show that penicillin, cephalosporin, erythromycin and other old antibacterial drug resistance rate is increasing, and some even as high as 80% to 90%. Many people mistakenly think that the development of new antibacterial drugs can solve this problem, but in fact, it is very difficult to develop. After the 1980 s, no new antibiotics were discovered or synthesized except daptomycin. Once drug resistance occurs, common operations such as caesarean section and hip replacement may become high-risk medical operations, and the risk of patients dying from surgery complicated with infection has increased.
"In recent years, my country's medical and health system has strictly controlled antibiotics, which has produced certain effects in tertiary hospitals and some secondary hospitals, but there is still a long way to go before the ideal state." Xiao Yonghong said that at present, there are two main difficulties in antibiotic management. One is that the more grass-roots level, the more serious the abuse of antibiotics and the greater the difficulty of management; the other is the serious abuse of antibiotics in children, which is related to the fact that children have more bacterial infectious diseases, doctors are affected by occupational stress, parental interference and other factors. In addition, it is understood that although my country's agriculture and aquaculture industries have issued a series of regulations for the use of antibacterial drugs, stipulating which drugs can be used, which drugs cannot be used, and the specific dosage, etc., due to inadequate implementation, abuse is still very common.
Prevention of abuse is everyone's responsibility
"Preventing antibiotic abuse is not just a matter for countries and doctors." Xiao Yonghong said that everyone should bear corresponding responsibilities. National health, agriculture and other relevant departments should strengthen supervision and revise management methods in a timely manner according to national conditions; doctors should always tighten the string of drug resistance and carefully prescribe prescriptions containing antibiotics; ordinary people should also correct their mentality and realize that the abuse of antibiotics will pose a threat to themselves and even the whole human race, so they should strictly follow the doctor's advice to use antibiotics. Professor Sun Zhongshi, an expert in the national rational drug use monitoring system, said that in view of the abuse of antibiotics in grass-roots medical institutions, it is necessary to strengthen the supervision of administrative departments at all levels, formulate a stricter drug prescription system, and improve the technical training and wages of grass-roots doctors, so as to avoid them prescribing antibiotics in pursuit of economic interests.
In addition, the Mayo Clinic, a well-known medical institution in the United States, recommends that antibiotics be used in daily life. In addition to strictly following the doctor's advice, doctors should not take the initiative to prescribe antibiotics. The leftover antibiotics should be disposed of through formal channels and should not be used to treat other diseases without authorization. Strictly ensure the daily dosage and insist on completing the whole course of treatment. Pay attention to personal hygiene during taking antibiotics, wash hands correctly before meals and prevent the spread.