Rational view of smog experts teach you seven ways to reduce damage

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"Smog is a primary carcinogen. A human lung has 0.3 billion alveoli, and 80 PM2.5 particles can block one alveoli, and when we live in an environment where PM2.5 reaches 1155 micrograms/cubic meter, 30 million alveoli can be blocked in one year and 1/3 lungs in three years." Recently, this short 150 seconds of haze into the human body of the whole process of video, to see people thrilling. However, smog will really block our lungs?What about human health?

Smog can "block the lungs"? Can cause airway obstruction or inflammation

Although the haze is harmful to the human body, the respiratory system "bear the brunt". "But the claim that 80 PM2.5 particles can block an alveolar is unscientific." In an interview with a reporter from Science and Technology Daily, Wan Jun, deputy chief physician of the Second Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of China-Japan Hospital, said that the damage of smog particles to the human body is not to mechanically "block" the alveoli, but to adhere to the alveoli. And the surface of the small airway, which in turn induces inflammation, and ultimately affects gas exchange or secondary other lesions.

Wan Jun explained that PM2.5 particles in the smog can indeed pass through the nasal cavity and throat of the human body to the bronchi and bronchioles, and then enter the alveoli, but this does not mean that these particles will "block" the alveoli, because The human body itself has a self-protection mechanism to prevent lung infection. First of all, the trachea and bronchial epithelium have mucocilia, cilia to the larynx direction of rapid swing, slow swing back, can be mucus to the larynx. The mucus above the cilia is divided into two layers, the inner layer is sol, which moves with the cilia swinging, and the outer layer is non-absorbent gel, which has the effect of preventing the evaporation of the inner layer of liquid, thus forming a barrier to inhaled foreign matter and particles, and the particles adhering to the airway mucosa are swallowed or coughed out after being transported to the pharynx by the mucus cilia. In addition, macrophages are widely distributed in the lungs, which have a super-strong defense function and can remove particles that enter the alveoli-first phagocytosis of particles, and then through lysosomal enzymes to break down and remove them.

"So, in the short term, the protective mechanism in our body can help us remove these inhaled particles, but if we inhale in large quantities over a long period of time, our cilia system will be destroyed, and the function of phagocytes will also decline. The ability to remove particles decreases, which in turn causes some chronic damage." Wan Jun also said that these injuries include chronic inflammation of airway epithelial cells, hyperplasia of bronchial glands, and excessive mucus secretion by goblet cells in the airway, which eventually leads to respiratory disorders.

Wan Jun pointed out that it is an indisputable fact that the increase of PM2.5 concentration can lead to the increase of mortality rate of respiratory diseases. However, there is no clear medical literature support for the "accurate" measurement of "80 PM2.5 particles blocking an alveolar" at home and abroad. Foreign research on PM2.5 was carried out earlier than us, but they have not yet come up with such a "specific" PM2.5 pathogenic quantity value. "It is now certain that the higher the concentration, the greater the harm to the human body, but because this involves long-term, large-scale population experiments, the specific magnitude and the specific harm to the human body, there is no accurate data."

Smog easy "sad"? Fine particles can induce cardiovascular disease

Although it is an exaggeration to say that smog will "block the lungs", smog is really easy to "sad". Professor Hu Dayi, a well-known expert in the cardiovascular field, said: "When people are exposed to smog for a long time, it is equivalent to adding a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease, like 'laying a landmine' for the heart. At the same time, in the short-term exposure, it can make the cardiovascular plaques that are not yet serious suddenly rupture, produce blood clots, induce acute myocardial infarction, and become a 'fuse '."

Data from the Harvard School of Public Health prove that particulate pollutants in cloudy days not only cause myocardial infarction, but also cause myocardial ischemia or damage. The United States investigated 25000 people with heart disease or poor heart disease and found that after PM2.5 increased by 10 micrograms/cubic meter, the mortality rate of patients would increase by 10%-27%.

In addition, PM2.5 is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Pan Xiaochuan, a professor at the School of Public Health of Peking University Health Science Center, published a paper saying, "We used time to analyze and analyze the collected data and found that if the concentration of PM2.5 increases by 10 micrograms per cubic meter, the number of emergency patients with hypertension in the hospital will increase by 8%, and cardiovascular diseases will also increase."

Hu Dayi pointed out that in addition to directly acting on the cardiovascular system, anxiety and depression caused by haze are also worthy of attention. These negative emotions can also lead to a series of chain cardiovascular diseases.

"Surrender" to smog? Experts teach you seven ways to reduce damage

So how can we minimize the damage to us?

Guo Xinbiao, director of the Department of Labor Health and Environmental Health of the School of Public Health of Peking University and director of the Institute of Environmental Medicine of Peking University, pointed out that in the case of severe haze weather, the first principle to reduce injuries is to avoid going out. Personal protection must be done. In the continuous haze days, but also to choose the appropriate time to open the window ventilation. Long-term no window room without fresh air, pollution will increase. To this end, he taught the public seven ways to prevent haze.

The first trick: Wearing a mask can set up an additional barrier to prevent the inhalation of harmful particles. After removing the mask, you have to wait until it is dry and then fold it in half to prevent the moisture from breathing from breeding bacteria.

Second trick: wear a hat, wear long clothes. The ability of hair to absorb pollutants is strong, wearing a hat can alleviate the harm, avoid excessive skin exposure, and reduce the area of contact with harmful air.

The third trick: go out for a short stay, breathe peacefully, walk fast in small steps; Don't ride a bicycle, avoid the rush hour of traffic congestion and the road section with too much driving, avoid inhaling more chemical components; Wash your face, gargle and clean your nasal cavity in time to remove the pollution residue attached to your body.

The fourth trick: in terms of diet, drink plenty of water to speed up the renewal of water in the body; eating more fresh vegetables and fruits can not only supplement various vitamins and inorganic salts, but also moisten the lungs and remove dryness, eliminate phlegm and relieve cough, strengthen the spleen and kidney. Eat a balanced diet to ensure adequate nutritional intake.

The fifth move: in haze days, the elderly, children, pregnant women and susceptible people suffering from respiratory diseases should try to reduce going out; patients with asthma and coronary heart disease need to carry drugs with them if they want to go out. If the haze stimulates the respiratory tract to produce throat discomfort, cough, chest tightness and other symptoms continue to not ease, need to go to the hospital.

The sixth trick: outdoor exercise should be stopped during haze days. Morning exercise in haze weather can not only lead to respiratory diseases, but also lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Especially in winter, the cold weather can cause vasospasm, elevated blood pressure, angina pectoris.

The seventh trick: in haze weather, you should try not to open the window. If you really need to open the window for ventilation, you should try to avoid the morning and evening haze peak hours. You can open the window for ventilation. The time should be half an hour to one hour each time. In terms of window opening time, noon is more appropriate, because the PM2.5 concentration at this time is relatively the lowest in the day.

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Q: Does lung food really work?

A: It's hard to get rid of pollutants on diet

In the face of a large area of smog across the country, various anti-haze methods are emerging on the Internet. Among them, it is mentioned that eating pig blood, duck blood, fungus and other lung-clearing foods can clear the lungs and remove dust. Is this true?

Jing Lulu, a nutritionist in the Clinical Nutrition Department of Peking University First Hospital, said in an interview that the invasion of PM2.5 depends on our respiratory system. Fine particles enter the bronchioles and even alveoli of the lungs through the nasal cavity, and eventually deposit here. And participate in the occurrence and development of various diseases. "And food enters the body from the mouth, and the subsequent digestion and absorption depends on our digestive system." Well Road explained that the digestion of food starts from the mouth, enters the stomach through the esophagus, and is initially decomposed by pepsin in gastric juice through gastric acid and protein in food. The formed chyme enters the small intestine and is further digested and decomposed to form glucose, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and other trace elements and small molecular nutrients, which are then absorbed into the blood circulation through the small intestinal villi. It can be seen that the "haze" belonging to the respiratory system and the "food" belonging to the digestive system take two completely different "roads". Therefore, no matter pig blood, duck blood, black fungus and other harmful substances "meet", naturally there is no reaction.

Well Road stressed that at present, there is no scientific evidence that pig blood, duck blood and black fungus can reach the distribution center of PM2.5 after digestion and absorption into the blood, playing the role of "scavenger.

At present, any food can not remove or reduce the adverse effects of PM2.5 on the anatomical sense of the lung, "do not believe that food clear lung". Pan Xiaochuan made it clear that PM2.5 is a kind of fine particulate matter composed of a variety of chemical substances. The composition of PM2.5 is also very complex and may vary from place to place. There is no food specifically for the prevention and control of PM2.5. Various dietotherapy has little effect on the protection of PM2.5. Therefore, "some food can prevent PM2.5" and there is no scientific basis.